RU

UNIT 13
Present perfect (I have done) (1)

I / you / we / they  have  (= I’ve … )
he / she / it  has  (= he’s … )
done / managed …
Have I / you / we / they
Has he / she / it
done / managed … ?
I / you / we / they  have nothaven’t )
he / she / it  has nothasn’t )
done / managed …

a)

Study this example situation:

  • Tom is looking for his key. He can’t find it. He has lost his key.
  • ‘He has lost his key’ means that he lost it a short time ago and he still hasn’t got it.

We form the present perfect with have / has + the past participle. The past participle often ends in -ed (opened, decided) but many important verbs are irregular (lost, written, done etc.).

b)

When we use the present perfect there is a connection with the present:

  • I’ve lost my key. (= I haven’t got it now.)
  • Jim has gone to Canada. (= He is in Canada or on his way there now.)
  • Oh dear, I’ve forgotten her name. (= I can’t remember it now.)
  • Have you washed your hair? (= Is it clean now?)

c)

We often use the present perfect to give new information or to announce a recent happening:

  • I’ve lost my key. Can you help me look for it?
  • Do you know about Jim? He’s gone to Canada.
  • Ow! I’ve burnt myself.

You can use the present perfect with just (= a short time ago):

  • A: Would you like something to eat?
    B: No, thanks. I’ve just had lunch.
  • Hello, have you just arrived?

You can use the present perfect with already to say that something has happened sooner than expected:

  • A: Don’t forget to post the letter, will you?
    B: I’ve already posted it.
  • A: When is Tom going to start his new job?
    B: He has already started.

d)

Study the difference between gone to and been to:

  • Ann is on holiday. She has gone to Italy. (= She is there now or she is on her way there.)
  • Tom is back in England now. He has been to Italy. (= He was there but now he has come back.)

For the present perfect see also Unit 14-19.

For the present perfect and past simple see Unit 20 and 21.

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