Present perfect (I have done) (1)
I / you / we / they have (= I’ve … )|
he / she / it has (= he’s … )
|done / managed …|
Have I / you / we / they|
Has he / she / it
|done / managed … ?|
I / you / we / they have not ( haven’t )|
he / she / it has not ( hasn’t )
|done / managed …|
Study this example situation:
- Tom is looking for his key. He can’t find it. He has lost his key.
- ‘He has lost his key’ means that he lost it a short time ago and he still hasn’t got it.
We form the present perfect with have / has + the past participle. The past participle often ends in -ed (opened, decided) but many important verbs are irregular (lost, written, done etc.).
When we use the present perfect there is a connection with the present:
- I’ve lost my key. (= I haven’t got it now.)
- Jim has gone to Canada. (= He is in Canada or on his way there now.)
- Oh dear, I’ve forgotten her name. (= I can’t remember it now.)
- Have you washed your hair? (= Is it clean now?)
We often use the present perfect to give new information or to announce a recent happening:
- I’ve lost my key. Can you help me look for it?
- Do you know about Jim? He’s gone to Canada.
- Ow! I’ve burnt myself.
You can use the present perfect with just (= a short time ago):
- A: Would you like something to eat?
B: No, thanks. I’ve just had lunch.
- Hello, have you just arrived?
You can use the present perfect with already to say that something has happened sooner than expected:
- A: Don’t forget to post the letter, will you?
B: I’ve already posted it.
- A: When is Tom going to start his new job?
B: He has already started.
Study the difference between gone to and been to:
- Ann is on holiday. She has gone to Italy. (= She is there now or she is on her way there.)
- Tom is back in England now. He has been to Italy. (= He was there but now he has come back.)
For the present perfect see also Unit 14-19.
For the present perfect and past simple see Unit 20 and 21.